गुरुवार, 25 अक्तूबर 2012

Indian History & Culture

01Alexander invaded India in326 BC
02The Mauryan Empire was established in322 BC
03The First Mughal Emperor of India wasBabur
04Taj Mahal was built byShahjahan
05Lala Lajpat Rai was also known asLion of Punjab
06Chandragupta II was also known asVikramaditya
07The city of Fatehpur Sikri was built byAkbar
08The Red Fort in Delhi was built byShahjahan
09Battle of Panipat was faught in1761 AD
10The first President of India wasDr.Rajendra Prasad
11"Swaraj is my birthright!" was said byBal Gangadhar Tilak
12The capital of Mysore during the rule of Tipu Sultan wasSrirangapatnam
13Battle of Plassey was fought in1757 AD
14The first Governor-General of Bengal under the East India Company wasWarren Hastings
15Ashoka was born in269 BC
16Permanent settlement in Bengal was introduced byLord Cornwallis
17The last Governor-General of India wasC.Raja Gopalachari
18The first session of the Indian National Congress was held atBombay (Mumbai)
19Quit India Movement started in the year1942 AD
20Sir Thomas Roe,English Ambassador, visited India during the reign ofJahangir
21In the battle of Plassey, Lord Clive defeatedSiraj-ud-Daula
22The city of Calcutta was founded in1690 AD
23The capital of king Vikramaditya's kingdom wasUjjain
24The first Viceroy of India wasLord Canning
25The name of the famous horse of Rana Pratap wasChetak
26The Grand Trunk road was built during the reign ofShersa Suri
27Tipu Sultan was born in1750 AD
28Home Rule Movement was started byAnnie Besant
29Shivaji was crowned in1664 AD
30East India Company was established in the year1600 AD
31The capital city of ancient India wasIndraprastha
32The first woman ruler in India wasRazia Begum
33The capital of the Mauryan wasPatliputra
34The construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi was completed byAla-ud-din
35Din-i-Ilahi was founded byAkbar
36Rabindranath tagore was born in1861 AD
37The most famous king of Vijayanagar Empire wasKrishnadevaraya
38Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan was also known asFrontier Gandhi
39Samudra Gupta is popularly known asNapolean of India
40The first Tamil hero who fought against the British wasVeerapandya Kattabomman
41Akbar's tomb is situated atSikandrabad
42Gautama Buddha was the son ofShuddhodan
43Shivaji's mother wasJeejabai
44Gandhiji's mother wasPuthali Bai
45The political teacher of shivaji wasDadoji Konddev
46Timur invaded India in the year1398 AD
47Mahmud Ghazni was the son ofSabaktageen
48The city of Ahmedabad was established byAhmed Shah I
49Rani padmini wasQueen of Rana Ratna simha,the king of Chittoor
50The real name of Babar wasZahiruddin Muhammed
51The meaning of the word "Babar" isTiger
52Vijayasthamba is located atChittoor Fort
53Timur was the ruler ofSamarkhand,Central Asia
54The Indian social reformer who fought for the abolition of Sati wasRajaram Mohan Roy
55The first British Governor General of free India wasLord Mountbatten
56Dadabhai Naoroji was associated with the theory of"Drain of Wealth"
57The kingdom of South India well known for its Naval power wasThe Cholas
58Aligarh Muslim University was founded bySir Syed Ahmed Khan
59The first Indian ruler who prohibited Sati wasAkbar
60The Mughal ruler who was to recruit Rajput nobles in his administration wasAkbar
61The reforms announced by the British Govt.in 1909 are known asThe Morle-Minto Reforms
62The architect who designed the capital City of New Delhi wasE.L.Lutyens
63At the time of independence, the number of princely states in India were552
64The Indian Prime Minister known as "Man of Peace" wasLal Bahadur Shastri
65The Indian king who fought the last Anglo-Mysore War against the English wasTipu Sultan
66Kohinoor Diamond was taken away byNadir Shah
67The full name of Shahjehan wasKhurram Shihabuddin Mohammed Shahjehan
68The Bardoli satyagraha was started byMahatma Gandhi
69The founder of Arya Samaj wasSwamy Dayanand Saraswati
70The Governor General who abolished Sati wasLord William Bentinck
71Bihar was earlier known asMagadha
72Agra was earlier known asAkbarabad
73"Harsha Charit" was written byBanabatta
74Chandragupta Maurya spent the last days of his life atSravanabelagola
75Jalianwala Bagh Massacre took place atAmritsar
76Vijayanagar kingdom was situated on the banks of riverTungabhadra
77In 1498,the sea route to india was discovered byVasco-da-gama
78King Bhoja was from the which dynastyPratihara
79The period 1206 Ad to 1526 AD is known asThe Delhi Sultanate
80Agra city was founded bySikandar Lodhi
81Vijaynagar Empire was founded byHarihara and Bukka
82The Vijayanagar kings fought frequent wars with theBahamani Sultans
83The last king of the Vijayanagar empire wasRama Raya
84Shankaracharya was associated with which movementBhakti
85Ramanuja preached the philosophy ofVishishtadvaita
86The followers of Ramanuja are known asVaishnavas
87Kabir was the disciple ofRamanand
88The founder of Sikh religion wasGuru Nanak
89Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the year1526 AD
90Babar died in the year1530 AD
91Humayun was defeated bySher Shah Suri
92Humayun died at the age of48 years
93Akbar was crowned in the year1556 AD
94In the second battle of Panipat, Akbar defeatedHimu
95Akbar died in the year1605 Ad
96The original name of Nurjahan wasMehrunisa
97Jehangir was known for hisJustice
98Jehangir died in the year1627 AD
99Aurangzeb was the son ofShahjehan
100Aurangzeb died in the year1707 AD
101The first Guru of the sikhs wasGuru Nanak Dev
102The tenth Guru of the sikhs wasGuru Gobind Singh
103Amritsar was founded byGuru Ram Das
104The Golden Temple was built byGuru Arjan Dev
105The Akal Takht was built byGuru Hargobind
106Guru Gobind Singh was born in1666 AD
107The `Khalsa' at Anandpur Sahib was founded byGuru Gobind Singh
108Maharaja Ranjit Singh was born in1780 AD
109Bahadur Shah Zafar died in the year1862 AD
110Shivaji died at age of50 years
111In tne year 1798,who was appointed as the Governor-GeneralWellesley
112Wellesley started the policy ofSubsidiary Alliance
113Dalhousie became the Governor-General in1848 AD
114The first war of Indian Independence fought in 1857 is also known asThe Sepoy Mutiny
115The Lady ruler who participated in the 1857 Revolt wasRani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi
116The Indian Association was formed in 1876 atCalcutta
117The Indian National Congress was formed in1885 AD
118The Rowlatt Act was passed in the year1919 AD
119The Jalianwala Bagh Massacre took place in the year1919 AD
120The movement launched in 1920 is known asThe Non-Co-operation Movement
121The Simon Commission came to India in the year1928 AD
122Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded byBindusara
123Ashoka invaded Kalinga in the year261 BC
124Ashoka died in the year232 BC
125Ashoka ruled for a period of40 years
126The last king of Maurya dynasty wasBrihadratha
127Chandragupta was succeeded bySamudragupta
128The Iron Pillar near Qutb Minar was erected byChandragupta II
129Fahien, a Chinese traveller visited india during the reign ofChandragupta II
130Harshavardhana ascended the throne at the age of16 years
131Harshavardhana was defeated byPulakeshin II
132The Chinese traveller who visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana wasHieun Tsang
133Akbar was succeeded byJehangir
134Jehangir was succeeded byShahjehan
135In ancient times this river was called Shatadru. How do we know it now?Sutlej.
136In the Rigveda there is a reference to the "Dasharajna Yuddha". What does this refer to?It was a battle of 10 kings fought between Sudasa, a king of the Tritsu family on one side, and a confederacy of 10 tribes on the other. It was fought on the banks of the Parushni (Ravi). Sudasa defeated his enemies in this battle.
137Who was the ruler of the territory between the Jhelum and the Ravi when Alexander invaded India?Paurava or Porus as the Greeks called him.
138When Porus surrendered to Alexander, Alexander asked him how he wished to be treated. What was Porus' reply?"As one King would treat another". This was his famous reply that has become a classic. Hearing this Alexander not only reinstated Porus on the throne, but he also added territories towards the east and domains of many republican states to the existing kingdom of Porus (according to Plutarch).
139Who was Megasthenes?Megasthenes was the Greek ambassador to the Mauryan Court.
140Who sent Megasthenes as his ambassador to the Mauryan Court?Seleucus Nikator.
141Where did Seleucus Nikator rule?Babylon. He gradually extended his empire from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus.
142Whom did Chandragupta Maurya defeat to establish his kingdom?The Nanda dynasty of Magadha.
143Who helped Chandragupta Maurya defeat the Nanda rulers?Kautilya also called Chanakya.
144Of which territories was Ashoka the Viceroy before he became the king?Taksha-Shila and Ujjain.
145"Beloved of the gods" and "of amiable appearance". Ashoka used these titles in his inscriptions. Can you give the original titles?"Devanampiya" and "Piyadassi" (Devanampriya and Priyadarshin).
146What was unique about the personal bodyguards of the Maurya rulers?They were women.
147Who was the last Maurya King?Brihadratha.
148Who overthrew Brihadratha?Pushyamitra, who was his Commander-in-chief.
149What was the name of the dynasty that succeeded Mauryan dynasty?The Shunga dynasty. (Pushyamitra founded this dynasty after he overthrew the Mauryan ruler)
150From which source have historians got some details of the overthrow of the Mauryan dynasty?Bana's Harshacharita written almost eight centuries after the event.


151The Allahabad Pillar inscription is the most authentic record about the reign of a famous Emperor. Identify that Emperor.Samudra Gupta
152The Hindu kingdom of Champa flourished outside the present boundaries of India. Where would the kingdom be located in today's context?Vietnam. During this period, the country was considered a great centre of Vedic education.
153What is Theravada in the context of Buddhism?It is a major form of Buddhism prevalent in Sri Lanka, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand.
154Where is Angkor Vat located?It is located in the ancient kingdom of Kambuja (modem Cambodia). It means Temple (Vat) of the city (Angkor).
155Who constructed Angkor Vat?Suryavarman II.
156To whom is Angkor Vat dedicated?Vishnu.
157Who wrote Uttara-Rama-Charitam?Bhavabhuti.
158What is the Gandhara art also known as?Indo-Greek. The Gandhara sculptures drew their inspiration from the Hellenic (Greek) art of Asia Minor.
159After whom have the rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu been named?The five Pandavas and Draupadi.
160To which dynasty did Gautamiputra Shatakarni belong?Shatavahanas.
161Who founded the Shatavahana dynasty?The founder of the family was Simuka but it was Shatakarni I who raised it to eminence.
162Who wrote the Buddha Charita?Ashvaghosha.
163To which dynasty did Kanishka belong?The Kushana dynasty
164On the banks of which river did Harappa lie?Ravi. Mohenjodaro was on the bank of the Sindhu
165Name the trading station of the Indus Valley Civilisation.Lothal.
166The 'Sapta Sindhu' was the area of the initial Aryan settlement. To what region did it refer?The land of the Sindhu (Indus) and its principal tributaries.
167Which is the crime that is most often mentioned in the
168What does the word 'Sangam' refer to in Tamil History?It is the literary assembly of Tamil scholars held at Madurai under the patronage of the Pandyan Kings.
169Which great Chola Emperor started the tradition of installing epigraphs with historical introductions?Rajaraja Chola.
170Nalanda and Vikramshila were very famous in ancient India. What was the reason for their fame?These were the centres where the famous Buddhist Universities flourished.
171What were Nalanda, Vikramshila in reality?Buddhist monasteries. They later took on the shape of universities.
172What does the term Bhagavata relate to?CC.
173Greek sources refer to him as Sandrocottus (Androcottus). How do we know him?Chandragupta Maurya.
174What does the term 'dwija' mean?'Dwija' describes those who wear the sacred thread after Upanayanam. Literally 'Dwija' means twice-born.
175What was the reason for the importance of Kaveripattanam during the Sangam period?It was among the chief ports of the Tamil countries that carried on trade with the Romans.
176What was the intoxicating drink that was consumed by the Rig Vedic Aryans during religious ceremonies?Soma.
177How do we better know "Sakyamuni" (Shakyamuni)?Buddha.
178Who was the twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara of the Jains?Vardhamana Mahavira
179On the basis of the Dhamma that Ashoka propagated, what is "Shusrusha"?Shusrusha meant obedience to father, mother, teacher and men of high caste.
180What is the literal meaning of Mohenjodaro?Mound of the dead.
181What is a Stupa?It is a kind of tomb where the relics of Buddha or other Buddhist monks are kept.
182What were the four sights which Gautam saw, while being driven around the city?An old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic.
183Who was the chief deity of the Sangam Period?Murugan (Karttikeya)
184Which Gupta ruler is also known as 'Kavi Raja'?Samudragupta.
185Samudragupta is represented on coins as playing a particular musical instrument. Which musical instrument is that?Veena.
186What is common to the following: Kumarasambhava, Ritusamhara, Raghuvamsham and Meghdootam?They are all works of Kalidasa.
187What was the name of Harsha's sister?Rajyashri
188What was the title assumed by Harsha when he ascended the throne?Shiladitya
189Whom did Harsha succeed?His elder brother, Rajyavardhana.
190Mahendra, the son of Ashoka, was sent as a Buddhist missionary to a particular kingdom. Identify the kingdom.Sri Lanka
191In ancient times, who were the foreigners who were called Yavanas?The Greeks. The word was derived from the Old Persian form of the word 'Yauna', signifying originally the Ionian Greeks, but later, all people of Greek nationality. In the medieval times it came to be used for all foreigners irrespective of their place of origin.
192What was Sumatra called as, in ancient times?Suvarnadvipa.
193Who systematised the rules of Sanskrit grammar
(4 Century BC) in the work Ashtadhyayi?
194One of the chief sources of revenue from villages mentioned in the Ashokan inscriptions is the "Bhaga". What is it?Bhaga: King's share of the produce of the soil, usually l/6th. The other source of revenue was the Bali. The Bali was the land tribute paid to the King.
195In the Mauryan times if someone were referring to the Karshapana, what would he be talking about?The Karshapana was a copper coin that was in use during the Mauryan times. Dharana was a Silver coin and the Kakani were smaller copper coins.
196Where is Gandhara art found?The ruins of Taksha-shila, in modern Pakistan and Afghanistan.
197What were the Jains originally called?Nirgrantha.
198In Jainism a small group of people were called Ganadharas. Who were they?The close disciples of Mahavira were called Ganadharas.
199For a while, Bhagavatism and Brahmanism were separate sects. How did the two merge into one?When Krishna, the main deity of Bhagavatism, began to be identified with Vishnu, the main deity of Brahmanism, the two sects merged into one.
200What is the importance of the Khyber and Bolan passes in Indian history?The land route between India and West Asia lies through these passes.
201Which city in ancient India was famous for its textile industry?Mathura
202What is Stridhana?It is the exclusive property of a married lady, something she often inherits from her mother.
203According to the Arthashastra the Senapati was an important member of the Mantri Parishad. What was his role?Commander-in-Chief of the army.
204Jyotisha is one of the Vedangas. What does it deal with?Astronomy and astrology
205Two popular assemblies used to control the affairs of the Vedic kingdoms. Name them.Sabha: - Body of the elders. Constituted of               Brahmins and rich patrons.
Samiti: - An assembly of common people.          Meant for the discharge of administration.
206Who or what are the 'Uttariya' and 'Antariya'?In ancient India, antariya (dhoti) a lower garment was worn by all common people. Uttariya was the garment that covered the upper part of the body. In addition to these the well-to-do people wore Prapata around the waist. Around the prapata, the rich wore Rasana, usually of gold. Ushneesha was used to cover the head and Stanapatta was worn to cover the breasts.
207Who built the rock-cut temples at Ellora?The Rashtrakuta king, Krishna I.
208In the context of Buddhism, what is Vinaya Pitaka?It is the work that deals with the governance of the life of Buddhists. It also describes the gradual development of the Sangha and the life and teachings of Buddha.
209What is contained in the Sutta Pitaka?Sutta Pitaka incorporates the greatest literary works of Buddhism. Of the five collections, the first four consist of discourses of Buddha.
210Patanjali's Mahabhashya refers to some of the stories about Krishna's early life. Who does Patanjali call Samkarshana?Balarama.
211With which modern township would you identify the ancient port of Suppara (also known as Surparaka)?Nala Sopara an extended suburb of modern Mumbai.
212What was the basis of barter for common articles during the Vedic period?Paddy.
213In which script were a majority of the Ashoka inscriptions written?Brahmi. Brahmi script was used in the whole of the country, except the northwest.
214What script did Ashoka use in the inscriptions of the Northwest of India?Kharoshti script.
215The Jaina texts were finally compiled in the sixth century A.D. in Vallabhi in Gujarat. In which language were they written?Prakrit.
216Who wrote the Arthashastra?Kautilya.
217Which is a very important source of information for the social, political and economic life of the people living in the Tamil Naidu area in the early Christian era?Sangam literature.
218Who is the author of the Greek work "Indika"?Megasthenes. This book, however, is not available to us in its entirety and survives only in quotations by subsequent classical writers.
219When did the Vikram Samvat begin in India?It began in 57 B.C.
220Over which part of present-day India did the Pala dynasty rule?Bengal.
221When did the Shaka era begin in India?78A.D.
222Who started the Shaka era?Kanishka of the Kushana dynasty.
223When did the Gupta era begin in India?In 320 A.D., after Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty.
224Over which kingdom did Kharavela rule?Kalinga.
225According to Buddhist sources, a dreaded dacoit had a transformation of heart and took refuge in Buddha's Dhamma. Who was he?Angulimala.
226An accomplished and rich dancer gave away her mango-grove to the Sangha of Buddha and became his disciple. Name her.Amrapali.
227Why was the Indus Valley Civilisation originally called the Harappan Civilisation?It was so called because the first site of this civilization was discovered (in 1921) at the modern site of Harappa, in present day Pakistan.
228What was the basis of the town planning of the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?It was the Grid System. In the format that they used all roads cut across each other almost at right angles. This led to the city being divided into blocks.
229What was the most important public place in Mohenjodaro?It was the Great Bath. It was probably used for ritual bathing.
230What religion did Kharavela patronise?Jainism.
231The Greeks called cotton "Sindon". There is a reason behind this name. What is it?The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation were the first to produce cotton and therefore the Greeks called it Sindon. This word is derived from the name Sindh.
232Karikala Chola founded a famous city. What was it?Puhar. Identified with Kaveripatnam the Chola capital.
233To which Age does the Indus Valley Civilisation belong?The Bronze Age. Iron was not known to them.
234What is the birthplace of Shankaracharya?Kaladi. Shankaracharya was a famous exponent of the Advaita philosophy. Advaita literally means not two. Advaita believes in an eternal being and holds that the plurality is nothing but illusion.
235How many books or Mandalas does the Rig Veda contain?Ten.
236Who introduced chariots drawn by horses into India?The Aryans
237Who was born to Siddhartha and Trishala in the year 540 B.C.?Vardhamana Mahavira
238According to the Arthashastra, the Purohita was an important member of the Mantri Parishad. What was his role?He was the High Priest.
239In ancient India handicraftsmen were organised into economic corporations or guilds. What were these Guilds called?Shreni.
240Who wrote Kadambari?Banabhatta.
241At what age did Mahavira abandon the world and become an ascetic?At the age of 30 yrs.
242Where and when did Mahavira pass away?In 468 B.C at Pavapuri, in modern Bihar.
243Jainism was divided into two sects. Name them.Shvetambara: - Those clad in white.
Digambara: - Those who are sky-clad (or are                      naked)
244Where was Buddha born?Buddha was born in the royal grove in Lumbini near Kapilavastu.
245Where did Buddha deliver his first sermon?At Sarnath.
246What was the path to be followed to be free from misery according to Buddha?He recommended following the eight-fold path, (ashtanga magga)
247Under whose rule did Magadha first attain prominence?Bimbisara. According to Ashwaghosha, Bimbisara belonged to the Haryanka dynasty.
248Who was the Royal Physician at Bimbisara's court?Jivaka.
249Which was the capital of the kingdom of Magadha before Pataliputra?Girivraja. Also called Rajagriha or Rajgir.
250Who succeeded Bimbisara to the throne of Magadha?Ajatashatru.
251Which dynasty succeeded the dynasty of Bimbisara?The Shishunagas. They conquered the kingdom of Avanti, and made it a part of the Magadhan empire.
252Where was Pataliputra situated?It was situated at the confluence of the Gandak, the Son, and the Ganga. It is present-day Patna.
253What were the reasons behind the refusal of the Greek soldiers to accompany Alexander beyond the Beas?They were war weary and home sick. The hot climate of India did not suit them. Having experienced the fighting abilities of the Indian people they were apprehensive about the power of the Nandas. All these reasons contributed to their refusal.
254What theme does Vishakhadatta's play, Mudrarakshasa, deal with?The strategies adopted by Chanakya against the enemies of Chandragupta Maurya.
255Which were the four divisions of the army in ancient India?Infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots.
256Why did Ashoka exempt the village of Lumbini from 'Bali' (tribute paid to the king)?Because this was the birthplace of Gautama Buddha.
257Menander, also known as Milinda, was the most famous of the Indo-Greek kings. Where was his capital city?Sakala, modern Sialkot.
258Who was the Buddhist monk who converted Menander into Buddhism?Nagasena or Nagarjuna.
259What is the Milinda Panha?It is a book, which records the conversation between Nagarjuna and Menander. Milinda Panha literally means Questions by Milinda.
260Who issued the first long inscription in chaste
Rudradaman, the famous Shaka ruler.
261We know of two successive dynasties of the Kushanas. Who founded them?The first dynasty was founded by Kadphises I and the second by Kanishka.
262The Shakas and the Kushanas completely identified themselves with Indian culture. What factors helped them in this?They did not have a script of their own nor did they have any organised religion.
263What were the articles of clothing introduced in India by the Shakas and the Kushanas?Trousers, long coat, tunic and turban. The turban, however, is mentioned as a head dress in ancient India (Ushneesha)
264How were the foreign elements like Shaka, Pahlava and the Kushanas assimilated into Indian society?Since they came as conquerors they were classified as Kshatriyas.
265Buddhism was divided into two sects. What were they?Mahayana: - The Great wheel. Hinayana: - The Lesser wheel.
266Name the two Buddhist centres located in present day Andhra Pradesh?Nagarjunakonda and Amaravati.
267What was the contribution of the Greeks to Indian theatre techniques?The use of curtain was borrowed from the Greeks. The curtain was called "Yavanika".
268Over which areas did the Shatavahana dynasty rule?The Deccan and Central India.
269Over which area of India did Rashtrakutas rule?Northern Maharashtra.
270Who were Gandhikas?Artisans who are mentioned as giving donations to the Buddhists. Originally Gandhika meant perfumes but was later used to describe shopkeepers. The name Gandhi is said to have been derived from it.
271What was the Buddhist temple known as?Chaitya.
272What was a Buddhist monastery known as?Vihara.
273What were the main articles of trade of the Southern Kingdoms of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas?Spices especially pepper, ivory, pearls, muslin and silk.
274Name two of the epics of the Sangam Age.Silappadikaram, Jivakachintamani and Manimekalai.
275What was the Uttarapatha?It was the route that was used for trade. It ran from Taksha-shila to Broach on the Western coast.
276Which empire rose on the remains of the Kushan Empire?The Gupta Empire.
277Who were Lichchhavis? What are they known for?Lichchhavis ruled over a vast area from Magadha to Nepal. They were best known for the democracy they practised. It would not be correct to compare it with democracy as understood today. Some preferred to call it oligarchy.
278Who wrote 'Hitopadesha'?Narayana Bhatta. Hitopadesha is a collection of stories, most of which were drawn from the Panchatantram of Vishnu Sharma.
279Who is regarded as the first important King of the Gupta dynasty?Chandragupta I.
280Which Gupta ruler adopted the title 'Vikramaditya'?Chandragupta II. He is regarded as the greatest of the Gupta rulers (376 to 414 AD).
281Who was the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the time of Chandragupta II?Fa-Hien.
282Who was the first Gupta king to assume the title 'Rajadhiraja"?Chandragupta I. In addition to 'Rajadhiraja', Samudragupta assumed the titles 'Parambhattaraka' and 'Paramabhagavata'.
283What was the image on the royal seal of the Guptas?Garuda.
284Who was the author of the play 'Mrichchhakatikam'?Shudraka.
285Which empire rose on the ruins of the empire of the Pallavas of Kanchi?The Chola Empire.
286A ruling dynasty at Thanesar, (in modern Haryana), extended its authority over the feudatories of the Gupta Empire. Who was the ruler who achieved this?Harsha.
287Which city did Harsha make his capital?Kanauj.
288Who was the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the time of Harsha?Hiuen Tsang.
289Who was the ruler of South India who prevented Harsha from extending his kingdom southwards?The Chalukya King Pulakesin II.
290What religion did Harsha follow during his early
He was a devotee of Shiva.
291Which religious sect did Harsha patronise in his later
The Buddhist.
292What are the Vedangas?The limbs of the Vedas. It was necessary to learn the Vedanga to understand the Vedas. The Vedangas were :
a) Shiksha (phonetics)
b) Kalpa (rituals)
c) Vyakarana
d) Nirukta (etymology)
e) Chhanda (metrics)
f) Jyotisha (astronomy)
293Who was reputed to be the author of the following books: Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda?Harsha.
294In which book would you find the famous Gayatri mantra?Rigveda.
295In the Rigveda, a daughter is sometimes referred to as 'duhitr'. What is the literal translation of the word?One who milks the cow.
296Who was the first person to hold that the earth was a sphere and rotated on its axis?Aryabhata. He also declared that the eclipses were not the work of Rahu but were caused by the shadow of the earth falling on the moon. Varahamihira and Brahmagupta later astronomers did not agree with his view. Aryabhata also gave an accurate approximation
297What is the 'Dharmachakrapravartana'?The preaching of the first sermon by Buddha.
298Who was responsible for establishing the order of nuns in Buddhism?Ananda, the personal attendant of Buddha, was largely responsible for the admission of Gautami (the widowed stepmother of Buddha) into the Sangha. This was the beginning of the order of nuns.
299Who deciphered the Asokan inscriptions?James Prinsep.
300The word 'Aryan' originates from the Sanskrit word 'Arya'. What was the meaning of the word?Of good famil

301What was the complaint of Pliny the elder, against India?He complained that India drained Roman wealth by selling luxury articles at high prices to Romans
302What was the name of the son of King of Takshashila who offered Alexander help in invading India?Ambhi. This was the first recorded instance of an Indian King turning traitor.
303What was the name the Greeks used to refer to Ambhi?Omphis.
304By which name do we know the ancient city of Prayag?Allahabad.
305Of the five Siddhantas (Indian astronomical works) two are said to be of Western origin. Which?Romaka Siddhanta and Paulisa Siddhanta. This shows that Indian astronomy was considerably influenced by Western thoughts.
306What is the modern name for the ancient city of Purushapura?Peshawar.
307From which language is the word 'Sindoora'
(vermilion) derived?
Chinese. (From the Chinese word Tsin-sung.)
308According to Chinese sources Kaundinya an Indian Prince, formed a kingdom in south East Asia. Where was this kingdom located?Cambodia.
309Who was Buddha's personal physician?Jivaka. Jivaka was the personal physician of Bimbisara. During his visit to Buddha, Bimbisara offered the services of Jivaka, who became Buddha's personal physician.
310Who were the Ajivikas?They were one of the prominent religious sects during the time of Mahavira and Buddha.
311In Vedic times, who was referred to as a 'Grihapati'?The master of the house.
312Which common seasoning ingredient of today finds no reference in the Rig Veda?Salt.
313What was the name of the famous tract of land that lay between the Saraswati and the Drishadvati?Kurukshetra.
314What was the Rajasuya sacrifice (yajna)?It was the yajna to mark the royal consecration. It included offerings to the gods in the houses of officials and a formal abhisheka by the priest. Other popular rites that followed were a cow-raid and a game of dice in which the king was made the Victor.
315What was the Vishwajit sacrifice?In the Vishwajit sacrifice, the (yajamana) performer had to give away all that he possessed.
316Who succeeded Chandra Gupta I?Samudragupta.
317According to legend, who succeeded Samudragupta?His son Rama Gupta. He was a weak ruler who surrendered his wife to a Shaka tyrant. Her honour was saved by the younger brother of Rama Gupta, Chandra Gupta, who killed the Shaka ruler, replaced his brother on the throne and married Dhruvadevi.
318Who succeeded Chandra Gupta II?His son Kumara Gupta, who ruled from AD 415 to 455.
319Who or what were the Huns?They were a race of fierce, warlike people, whose original home was in the steppes of Central Asia. They spread terror and destruction both in the West (i.e. the Roman Empire) and India.
320Which Gupta ruler successfully defended his empire against the invading Huns?Skanda Gupta.
321Which Gupta ruler performed the Ashwamedha yajna?Samudra Gupta.
322Into which group of people were the Huns assimilated by the Indian society?The Rajputs.
323Which dynasty claimed its descent from Lakshmana, the brother of Shri Rama?The Pratiharas. By the ninth century the influence of Pratiharas extended from the Punjab to central India and from Kathiawar to north Bengal.
324Who invented the decimal place value system?Aryabhata invented the decimal place value system. Scholars hold that it cannot be said with certainty that the system was invented by Aryabhata. It seems it was known to astronomers who came before him.
325The Cholas extended their territory in South India and also conquered the northern part of Sri Lanka. Who was the ruler who made northern Sri Lanka a province of his empire?Rajaraja Chola.
326Which part of India did the Arabs first conquer?Sindh. Mohammed Ibn-Kasim, the nephew and son-in-law of the governor of Iraq, defeated Dahir Sen in 712 A.D.
327What are the four sources of Law according to the law giver, Manu?a. Sruti or the Vedas.
b. Smriti (expanded version of the Dharma     shastras). Smriti is also regarded as the only     authentic source of Hindu Law and social     customs,
c. Customs of holy men
d. One's own inclination.
328By what name was the area of western and northwestern Bengal known?Gauda. The name was applied both to the people and their country.
329Where in Maharashtra are frescoes that depict the Jataka Stories?At Ajanta, near Ellora caves.
330What was the language used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization?Historians have as yet not been able to determine the language used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization. The script used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization has also not been deciphered.
331Which was the animal that was most engraved on Indus Valley Civilization seals?The Humpless Bull.
332What was unique about the ascension to the throne by Gopala, the founder of the Pala dynasty in Gauda (present day West Bengal)?He was not a hereditary ruler, but was elected by the people to rule over them.
333Which was the seat of power of the Pallava dynasty?Kanchipuram. The Pallavas founded the first great empire in south India. Under the Pallavas, Kanchi became a great centre of Brahminical and Buddhist
334Who was the Chola ruler who crossed the Ganga and defeated the rulers there?Rajendra Chola.
335When did the first invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni take
1000 A.D.
336Who was the first Indian ruler defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni?Jayapala of the Hindushahi dynasty.
337Where is Ghazni?In modem Afghanistan.
338Why were temples the main target of Mahmud of Ghazni?They had immense wealth stockpiled.
339Who was the Arab traveller whose work on India is referred to as a mirror of 11"1 century India?Alberuni.
340At whose request did Alberuni travel to India?Mahmudof Ghazni.
341At which battle did Prithviraj Chauhan defeat Mohammed of Ghori?In the first Battle of Tarain in 1190-91.
342Which medieval ruler is reputed to be an author of almost 20 books on subjects as diverse as medicine, architecture and astronomy?Raja Bhoja of the Paramara dynasty. The Paramara dynasty ruled over the Malwa region.
343Identify the person who was in charge of Mohammad of Ghori's possessions in India.Qutbuddin Aibak.
344To which deity was the temple of Somnath dedicated?Shiva.
345Who wrote the Ramayana in Tamil?Kamban.
346Who was the founder of the Slave dynasty?Qutbuddin Aibak.
347Why is the term "Slave dynasty" an inaccurate term?Only three sultans (Qutbuddin Aibak, Iltutmish and Balban) were slaves, and later even they were released from slavery by their masters. They were slaves, but only in the early part of their lives.
348Who was the only woman to ascend the throne of Delhi?Razia Sultana.
349Which Persian historian accompanied Alauddin Khalji on his expedition to Chittor?Amir Khusrau.
350The Choda Ganga dynasty of Orissa was responsible for the construction of some famous temples. Can you identify them?The Jagannath temple at Puri and the Sun Temple at Konark.
351Name the king of Mewar who is said to have built thirty two forts during his reign?RanaKumbha
352How did Rana Kumbha celebrate his victory over Mahmud Khalji of Malwa?He built the Tower of Victory in Chittor. It is called the Vijayastambha.
353Who helped Humayun save himself after the Battle of Chausa?A water carrier helped Humayun cross the Ganga and to safety.
354Over which kingdom did Chand Bibi rule?She ruled over Ahmadnagar as a Regent.
355What articles of trade was the kingdom of Golconda known for?Diamonds and textiles.
356Who founded the city of Hyderabad?Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah.
357Who was the Qutub Minar dedicated to?The Sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki and not Qutbuddin Aibak as people mistakenly assume.
358In which language did Shankaradeva, a Bhakti Saint, propagate his views?Assamese.
359In which language did Surdas sing?Brij.
360Where is the famous Kamakhya temple (Kamakshi)?At Guwahati.
361Which Mughal Emperor adopted the Zoroastrian
practice of Navroz?
362Which were the provinces added by Aurangzeb to the Mughal Empire?Bijapur and Golconda.
363Who took care of Shah Jahan when he was kept imprisoned by Aurangzeb?Jahanara, Shah Jahan's daughter.
364Who installed a chain of bells outside his palace gate?Jahangir.
365Why was the chain of bells installed?This was the "Chain of Justice" installed to ensure that all citizens of the country had access to justice.
366During the reign of which Mughal Emperor was the peacock throne made?Shah Jahan.
367Which place did Vasco da Gama reach when he found a new route to India?Calicut. Now known as Kozhikode
368What were the European Factories that are referred to in Indian history?Factories were nothing but fortified trading stations established by the European powers in India.
369Where did the English set up their first factory?Surat.
370Who was the Englishman who succeeded in getting a farman from the Mughals exempting the English from paying any inland toll?Sir Thomas Roe.
371What prompted Jahangir to allow the English to set up a factory in Surat?The British defeated the Portuguese naval squadrons. Jahangir wanted to use the English as a counter against the growing Portuguese power.
372What were the reasons why the British wanted to secure Bombay from the Portuguese?Those controlling Bombay controlled trade on the west coast. And there was no interference from either the Mughals or the Marathas on this sea.
373Which city did Job Charnock establish?Colcutta.
374Which Saint inspired the Marathas with ideals of social reform and national regeneration?Saint Samarth Ramdas.
375Near which fort, acquired early in his career, did Shivaji build Raigarh?Torna.
376Between 1649 and 1655 Shivaji suspended offensive operations against Bijapur. Why did he do so?His father had been arrested and was released only on the condition that Shivaji suspend his military activities.
377Alauddin Khalji was the nephew and son-in-law of a Delhi Sultan whom he later murdered. Who was the sultan?Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji.
378One of the more interesting causes for a battle fought in Indian history has been vividly described by Malik Muhammad Jayasi in his epic Padmavat. What, according to Malik Muhammad Jayasi was the cause of the battle?That Allaudin Khalji invaded Chittor because he was infatuated by Padmini, the queen of Rana Ratan Singh of Mewar.
379Why did Muhammad-bin-Tughluq shift his capital from Delhi?He shifted his capital to Deogir (Deogiri) because it held a central position in the empire and therefore, would be safe from Mongol invasions.
380Who was the first Afghan to be seated on the throne of Delhi?Buhlul Khan Lodi (in April 1451).
381Which kingdom came into existence during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq?Bahmani kingdom.
382Where is Babur buried?He is buried in Kabul.
383Poems of which Kashmiri poet are the oldest of the ones still available with us?LallaDidi(LalDed)
384The ruler of Bihar conferred upon the young Farid a title. What was the title and why was it conferred upon him?Sher Khan, for killing a tiger single-handed.
385What was the name assumed by Farid when he ascended the throne?Sher Shah.
386Who were the opponents in the battle fought at Chausa?Humayun and Sher Shah.
387How did Sher Shah die?Sher Shah died due to an accidental explosion of gunpowder while attempting to capture the fort Kalinjar in 1545.
388Which ruler helped Humayun recover Kandahar and Kabul?The Ruler of Persia.
389Who proclaimed Akbar the Emperor?Bairam Khan in 1556.
390What words did Saint Ramanuja use to describe the scheduled castes?Tirukulattar (Belonging to the family of God).
391At what age did Akbar ascend the thorne?Thirteen years.
392How did Humayun die?Humayun tumbled down the stairs of his library when he was responding to the call of muezzin for evening prayers.
393What was the occupation of Himu (also spelt Hemu) before he rose to prominence in politics?He was a grocer.
394Who fought the second battle of Panipat?Akbar and Himu.
395Who wrote Lilavati, a treatise on Algebra?Bhaskaracharya.
396What title did Himu adopt after he occupied Agra and Delhi by defeating its Mughal governor?Raja Vikramaditya
397Who did Iltutmish nominate as his successorHis daughter Razia.
398Himu, in the battle of Panipat, gained initial success against the Mughal forces. How did the tide turn in the favour of the Mughals?A chance arrow struck Himu in the eye rendering him unconscious. Deprived of his leadership his soldiers dispersed in confusion.
399The Mughal forces defeated a Rajput ruler at the pass of Haldighat. Which ruler are we talking about?Rana Pratap.
400Which work describes the romantic story of the marriage of Sanyogita the daughter of the Gahadavala king Jaichandra with Prithviraj Chauhan?Prithviraja Raso.
401Marco Polo was a traveller (from Venice) who is very well known for his adventures. Which south Indian dynasty does he mention in his travelogues?The Kakatiya dynasty.
402Timur or Tamerlane, a central Asian Turk (and an ancestor of Babur) invaded India and ransacked Delhi. Who was the ruler of Delhi at that time?Sultan Mahmud Shah.
403Name the ruler of the Tughluq dynasty who was well versed in Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine.Muhammad bin Tughluq.
404A particular dance form gained prominence during the Vijayanagara period. What was the dance form?Yakshagana.
405Who fought the battle of Talikota?The battle was fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the combined forces of the Deccan Sultans. The Sultan of Berar however did not take part in this battle.
406Who won the battle of Talikota?The Vijayanagara forces were comprehensively defeated and this eventually led to their downfall.
407Where was the Battle of Talikota fought?It was fought in the area between the villages of Rakassi and Tangadi (Tagdi). Due to the bloodshed and ruin that this battle brought on the Vijayanagara Empire it was also called 'Raktakshi Tangadi'.
408Who were the opponents at the battle of Khanua?Rana Sanga and Babur.
409What was the name of RanaPratap's horse?Chetak.
410Who was the Jesuit missionary who held personal
discussions with Akbar?
Anthony Monserrate.
411How do we better know Mihr-un-nisa in Indian
412What was the title given to Mihr-un-nisa by Jahangir?Nur Mahal (the light of the Palace). The title was later changed to Nur Jahan (Light of the World).
413Who was the Mughal queen whose name was written on all the imperial Mughal farmans of her time and inscribed on coins?Nur Jahan.
414After Akbar secured victory in Gujarat he undertook an activity to commemorate this victory. What was that activity?He founded the city of Fatehpur Sikri.
415By which name was Ramtanu Mishra known?Tansen. He was earlier in the employment of the Raja of Rewah.
416Name the Mughal emperor who was an accomplished veena player.Aurangzeb
417The Razmnama in Persian was a compilation by several scholars. Of which Hindu epic was this a translation?Mahabharata
418Name Aurangzeb's daughter who wrote under the pen name Makhi and produced a collection of poems.Zebunnisa.


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