The capital of Mysore during the rule of Tipu Sultan was
Battle of Plassey was fought in
The first Governor-General of Bengal under the East India Company was
Ashoka was born in
Permanent settlement in Bengal was introduced by
The last Governor-General of India was
The first session of the Indian National Congress was held at
Quit India Movement started in the year
Sir Thomas Roe,English Ambassador, visited India during the reign of
In the battle of Plassey, Lord Clive defeated
The city of Calcutta was founded in
The capital of king Vikramaditya's kingdom was
The first Viceroy of India was
The name of the famous horse of Rana Pratap was
The Grand Trunk road was built during the reign of
Tipu Sultan was born in
Home Rule Movement was started by
Shivaji was crowned in
East India Company was established in the year
The capital city of ancient India was
The first woman ruler in India was
The capital of the Mauryan was
The construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi was completed by
Din-i-Ilahi was founded by
Rabindranath tagore was born in
The most famous king of Vijayanagar Empire was
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan was also known as
Samudra Gupta is popularly known as
Napolean of India
The first Tamil hero who fought against the British was
Akbar's tomb is situated at
Gautama Buddha was the son of
Shivaji's mother was
Gandhiji's mother was
The political teacher of shivaji was
Timur invaded India in the year
Mahmud Ghazni was the son of
The city of Ahmedabad was established by
Ahmed Shah I
Rani padmini was
Queen of Rana Ratna simha,the king of Chittoor
The real name of Babar was
The meaning of the word "Babar" is
Vijayasthamba is located at
Timur was the ruler of
The Indian social reformer who fought for the abolition of Sati was
Rajaram Mohan Roy
The first British Governor General of free India was
Dadabhai Naoroji was associated with the theory of
"Drain of Wealth"
The kingdom of South India well known for its Naval power was
Aligarh Muslim University was founded by
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
The first Indian ruler who prohibited Sati was
The Mughal ruler who was to recruit Rajput nobles in his administration was
The reforms announced by the British Govt.in 1909 are known as
The Morle-Minto Reforms
The architect who designed the capital City of New Delhi was
At the time of independence, the number of princely states in India were
The Indian Prime Minister known as "Man of Peace" was
Lal Bahadur Shastri
The Indian king who fought the last Anglo-Mysore War against the English was
Kohinoor Diamond was taken away by
The full name of Shahjehan was
Khurram Shihabuddin Mohammed Shahjehan
The Bardoli satyagraha was started by
The founder of Arya Samaj was
Swamy Dayanand Saraswati
The Governor General who abolished Sati was
Lord William Bentinck
Bihar was earlier known as
Agra was earlier known as
"Harsha Charit" was written by
Chandragupta Maurya spent the last days of his life at
Jalianwala Bagh Massacre took place at
Vijayanagar kingdom was situated on the banks of river
In 1498,the sea route to india was discovered by
King Bhoja was from the which dynasty
The period 1206 Ad to 1526 AD is known as
The Delhi Sultanate
Agra city was founded by
Vijaynagar Empire was founded by
Harihara and Bukka
The Vijayanagar kings fought frequent wars with the
The last king of the Vijayanagar empire was
Shankaracharya was associated with which movement
Ramanuja preached the philosophy of
The followers of Ramanuja are known as
Kabir was the disciple of
The founder of Sikh religion was
Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the year
Babar died in the year
Humayun was defeated by
Sher Shah Suri
Humayun died at the age of
Akbar was crowned in the year
In the second battle of Panipat, Akbar defeated
Akbar died in the year
The original name of Nurjahan was
Jehangir was known for his
Jehangir died in the year
Aurangzeb was the son of
Aurangzeb died in the year
The first Guru of the sikhs was
Guru Nanak Dev
The tenth Guru of the sikhs was
Guru Gobind Singh
Amritsar was founded by
Guru Ram Das
The Golden Temple was built by
Guru Arjan Dev
The Akal Takht was built by
Guru Gobind Singh was born in
The `Khalsa' at Anandpur Sahib was founded by
Guru Gobind Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh was born in
Bahadur Shah Zafar died in the year
Shivaji died at age of
In tne year 1798,who was appointed as the Governor-General
Wellesley started the policy of
Dalhousie became the Governor-General in
The first war of Indian Independence fought in 1857 is also known as
The Sepoy Mutiny
The Lady ruler who participated in the 1857 Revolt was
Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi
The Indian Association was formed in 1876 at
The Indian National Congress was formed in
The Rowlatt Act was passed in the year
The Jalianwala Bagh Massacre took place in the year
The movement launched in 1920 is known as
The Non-Co-operation Movement
The Simon Commission came to India in the year
Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded by
Ashoka invaded Kalinga in the year
Ashoka died in the year
Ashoka ruled for a period of
The last king of Maurya dynasty was
Chandragupta was succeeded by
The Iron Pillar near Qutb Minar was erected by
Fahien, a Chinese traveller visited india during the reign of
Harshavardhana ascended the throne at the age of
Harshavardhana was defeated by
The Chinese traveller who visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana was
Akbar was succeeded by
Jehangir was succeeded by
In ancient times this river was called Shatadru. How do we know it now?
In the Rigveda there is a reference to the "Dasharajna Yuddha". What does this refer to?
It was a battle of 10 kings fought between Sudasa, a king of the Tritsu family on one side, and a confederacy of 10 tribes on the other. It was fought on the banks of the Parushni (Ravi). Sudasa defeated his enemies in this battle.
Who was the ruler of the territory between the Jhelum and the Ravi when Alexander invaded India?
Paurava or Porus as the Greeks called him.
When Porus surrendered to Alexander, Alexander asked him how he wished to be treated. What was Porus' reply?
"As one King would treat another". This was his famous reply that has become a classic. Hearing this Alexander not only reinstated Porus on the throne, but he also added territories towards the east and domains of many republican states to the existing kingdom of Porus (according to Plutarch).
Who was Megasthenes?
Megasthenes was the Greek ambassador to the Mauryan Court.
Who sent Megasthenes as his ambassador to the Mauryan Court?
Where did Seleucus Nikator rule?
Babylon. He gradually extended his empire from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus.
Whom did Chandragupta Maurya defeat to establish his kingdom?
The Nanda dynasty of Magadha.
Who helped Chandragupta Maurya defeat the Nanda rulers?
Kautilya also called Chanakya.
Of which territories was Ashoka the Viceroy before he became the king?
Taksha-Shila and Ujjain.
"Beloved of the gods" and "of amiable appearance". Ashoka used these titles in his inscriptions. Can you give the original titles?
"Devanampiya" and "Piyadassi" (Devanampriya and Priyadarshin).
What was unique about the personal bodyguards of the Maurya rulers?
They were women.
Who was the last Maurya King?
Who overthrew Brihadratha?
Pushyamitra, who was his Commander-in-chief.
What was the name of the dynasty that succeeded Mauryan dynasty?
The Shunga dynasty. (Pushyamitra founded this dynasty after he overthrew the Mauryan ruler)
From which source have historians got some details of the overthrow of the Mauryan dynasty?
Bana's Harshacharita written almost eight centuries after the event.
The Allahabad Pillar inscription is the most authentic record about the reign of a famous Emperor. Identify that Emperor.
The Hindu kingdom of Champa flourished outside the present boundaries of India. Where would the kingdom be located in today's context?
Vietnam. During this period, the country was considered a great centre of Vedic education.
What is Theravada in the context of Buddhism?
It is a major form of Buddhism prevalent in Sri Lanka, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand.
Where is Angkor Vat located?
It is located in the ancient kingdom of Kambuja (modem Cambodia). It means Temple (Vat) of the city (Angkor).
Who constructed Angkor Vat?
To whom is Angkor Vat dedicated?
Who wrote Uttara-Rama-Charitam?
What is the Gandhara art also known as?
Indo-Greek. The Gandhara sculptures drew their inspiration from the Hellenic (Greek) art of Asia Minor.
After whom have the rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu been named?
The five Pandavas and Draupadi.
To which dynasty did Gautamiputra Shatakarni belong?
Who founded the Shatavahana dynasty?
The founder of the family was Simuka but it was Shatakarni I who raised it to eminence.
Who wrote the Buddha Charita?
To which dynasty did Kanishka belong?
The Kushana dynasty
On the banks of which river did Harappa lie?
Ravi. Mohenjodaro was on the bank of the Sindhu (Indus.)
Name the trading station of the Indus Valley Civilisation.
The 'Sapta Sindhu' was the area of the initial Aryan settlement. To what region did it refer?
The land of the Sindhu (Indus) and its principal tributaries.
Which is the crime that is most often mentioned in the Rjgveda?
What does the word 'Sangam' refer to in Tamil History?
It is the literary assembly of Tamil scholars held at Madurai under the patronage of the Pandyan Kings.
Which great Chola Emperor started the tradition of installing epigraphs with historical introductions?
Nalanda and Vikramshila were very famous in ancient India. What was the reason for their fame?
These were the centres where the famous Buddhist Universities flourished.
What were Nalanda, Vikramshila in reality?
Buddhist monasteries. They later took on the shape of universities.
What does the term Bhagavata relate to?
Greek sources refer to him as Sandrocottus (Androcottus). How do we know him?
What does the term 'dwija' mean?
'Dwija' describes those who wear the sacred thread after Upanayanam. Literally 'Dwija' means twice-born.
What was the reason for the importance of Kaveripattanam during the Sangam period?
It was among the chief ports of the Tamil countries that carried on trade with the Romans.
What was the intoxicating drink that was consumed by the Rig Vedic Aryans during religious ceremonies?
How do we better know "Sakyamuni" (Shakyamuni)?
Who was the twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara of the Jains?
On the basis of the Dhamma that Ashoka propagated, what is "Shusrusha"?
Shusrusha meant obedience to father, mother, teacher and men of high caste.
What is the literal meaning of Mohenjodaro?
Mound of the dead.
What is a Stupa?
It is a kind of tomb where the relics of Buddha or other Buddhist monks are kept.
What were the four sights which Gautam saw, while being driven around the city?
An old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic.
Who was the chief deity of the Sangam Period?
Which Gupta ruler is also known as 'Kavi Raja'?
Samudragupta is represented on coins as playing a particular musical instrument. Which musical instrument is that?
What is common to the following: Kumarasambhava, Ritusamhara, Raghuvamsham and Meghdootam?
They are all works of Kalidasa.
What was the name of Harsha's sister?
What was the title assumed by Harsha when he ascended the throne?
Whom did Harsha succeed?
His elder brother, Rajyavardhana.
Mahendra, the son of Ashoka, was sent as a Buddhist missionary to a particular kingdom. Identify the kingdom.
In ancient times, who were the foreigners who were called Yavanas?
The Greeks. The word was derived from the Old Persian form of the word 'Yauna', signifying originally the Ionian Greeks, but later, all people of Greek nationality. In the medieval times it came to be used for all foreigners irrespective of their place of origin.
What was Sumatra called as, in ancient times?
Who systematised the rules of Sanskrit grammar (4 Century BC) in the work Ashtadhyayi?
One of the chief sources of revenue from villages mentioned in the Ashokan inscriptions is the "Bhaga". What is it?
Bhaga: King's share of the produce of the soil, usually l/6th. The other source of revenue was the Bali. The Bali was the land tribute paid to the King.
In the Mauryan times if someone were referring to the Karshapana, what would he be talking about?
The Karshapana was a copper coin that was in use during the Mauryan times. Dharana was a Silver coin and the Kakani were smaller copper coins.
Where is Gandhara art found?
The ruins of Taksha-shila, in modern Pakistan and Afghanistan.
What were the Jains originally called?
In Jainism a small group of people were called Ganadharas. Who were they?
The close disciples of Mahavira were called Ganadharas.
For a while, Bhagavatism and Brahmanism were separate sects. How did the two merge into one?
When Krishna, the main deity of Bhagavatism, began to be identified with Vishnu, the main deity of Brahmanism, the two sects merged into one.
What is the importance of the Khyber and Bolan passes in Indian history?
The land route between India and West Asia lies through these passes.
Which city in ancient India was famous for its textile industry?
What is Stridhana?
It is the exclusive property of a married lady, something she often inherits from her mother.
According to the Arthashastra the Senapati was an important member of the Mantri Parishad. What was his role?
Commander-in-Chief of the army.
Jyotisha is one of the Vedangas. What does it deal with?
Astronomy and astrology
Two popular assemblies used to control the affairs of the Vedic kingdoms. Name them.
Sabha: - Body of the elders. Constituted of Brahmins and rich patrons. Samiti: - An assembly of common people. Meant for the discharge of administration.
Who or what are the 'Uttariya' and 'Antariya'?
In ancient India, antariya (dhoti) a lower garment was worn by all common people. Uttariya was the garment that covered the upper part of the body. In addition to these the well-to-do people wore Prapata around the waist. Around the prapata, the rich wore Rasana, usually of gold. Ushneesha was used to cover the head and Stanapatta was worn to cover the breasts.
Who built the rock-cut temples at Ellora?
The Rashtrakuta king, Krishna I.
In the context of Buddhism, what is Vinaya Pitaka?
It is the work that deals with the governance of the life of Buddhists. It also describes the gradual development of the Sangha and the life and teachings of Buddha.
What is contained in the Sutta Pitaka?
Sutta Pitaka incorporates the greatest literary works of Buddhism. Of the five collections, the first four consist of discourses of Buddha.
Patanjali's Mahabhashya refers to some of the stories about Krishna's early life. Who does Patanjali call Samkarshana?
With which modern township would you identify the ancient port of Suppara (also known as Surparaka)?
Nala Sopara an extended suburb of modern Mumbai.
What was the basis of barter for common articles during the Vedic period?
In which script were a majority of the Ashoka inscriptions written?
Brahmi. Brahmi script was used in the whole of the country, except the northwest.
What script did Ashoka use in the inscriptions of the Northwest of India?
The Jaina texts were finally compiled in the sixth century A.D. in Vallabhi in Gujarat. In which language were they written?
Who wrote the Arthashastra?
Which is a very important source of information for the social, political and economic life of the people living in the Tamil Naidu area in the early Christian era?
Who is the author of the Greek work "Indika"?
Megasthenes. This book, however, is not available to us in its entirety and survives only in quotations by subsequent classical writers.
When did the Vikram Samvat begin in India?
It began in 57 B.C.
Over which part of present-day India did the Pala dynasty rule?
When did the Shaka era begin in India?
Who started the Shaka era?
Kanishka of the Kushana dynasty.
When did the Gupta era begin in India?
In 320 A.D., after Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty.
Over which kingdom did Kharavela rule?
According to Buddhist sources, a dreaded dacoit had a transformation of heart and took refuge in Buddha's Dhamma. Who was he?
An accomplished and rich dancer gave away her mango-grove to the Sangha of Buddha and became his disciple. Name her.
Why was the Indus Valley Civilisation originally called the Harappan Civilisation?
It was so called because the first site of this civilization was discovered (in 1921) at the modern site of Harappa, in present day Pakistan.
What was the basis of the town planning of the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?
It was the Grid System. In the format that they used all roads cut across each other almost at right angles. This led to the city being divided into blocks.
What was the most important public place in Mohenjodaro?
It was the Great Bath. It was probably used for ritual bathing.
What religion did Kharavela patronise?
The Greeks called cotton "Sindon". There is a reason behind this name. What is it?
The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation were the first to produce cotton and therefore the Greeks called it Sindon. This word is derived from the name Sindh.
Karikala Chola founded a famous city. What was it?
Puhar. Identified with Kaveripatnam the Chola capital.
To which Age does the Indus Valley Civilisation belong?
The Bronze Age. Iron was not known to them.
What is the birthplace of Shankaracharya?
Kaladi. Shankaracharya was a famous exponent of the Advaita philosophy. Advaita literally means not two. Advaita believes in an eternal being and holds that the plurality is nothing but illusion.
How many books or Mandalas does the Rig Veda contain?
Who introduced chariots drawn by horses into India?
Who was born to Siddhartha and Trishala in the year 540 B.C.?
According to the Arthashastra, the Purohita was an important member of the Mantri Parishad. What was his role?
He was the High Priest.
In ancient India handicraftsmen were organised into economic corporations or guilds. What were these Guilds called?
Who wrote Kadambari?
At what age did Mahavira abandon the world and become an ascetic?
At the age of 30 yrs.
Where and when did Mahavira pass away?
In 468 B.C at Pavapuri, in modern Bihar.
Jainism was divided into two sects. Name them.
Shvetambara: - Those clad in white. Digambara: - Those who are sky-clad (or are naked)
Where was Buddha born?
Buddha was born in the royal grove in Lumbini near Kapilavastu.
Where did Buddha deliver his first sermon?
What was the path to be followed to be free from misery according to Buddha?
He recommended following the eight-fold path, (ashtanga magga)
Under whose rule did Magadha first attain prominence?
Bimbisara. According to Ashwaghosha, Bimbisara belonged to the Haryanka dynasty.
Who was the Royal Physician at Bimbisara's court?
Which was the capital of the kingdom of Magadha before Pataliputra?
Girivraja. Also called Rajagriha or Rajgir.
Who succeeded Bimbisara to the throne of Magadha?
Which dynasty succeeded the dynasty of Bimbisara?
The Shishunagas. They conquered the kingdom of Avanti, and made it a part of the Magadhan empire.
Where was Pataliputra situated?
It was situated at the confluence of the Gandak, the Son, and the Ganga. It is present-day Patna.
What were the reasons behind the refusal of the Greek soldiers to accompany Alexander beyond the Beas?
They were war weary and home sick. The hot climate of India did not suit them. Having experienced the fighting abilities of the Indian people they were apprehensive about the power of the Nandas. All these reasons contributed to their refusal.
What theme does Vishakhadatta's play, Mudrarakshasa, deal with?
The strategies adopted by Chanakya against the enemies of Chandragupta Maurya.
Which were the four divisions of the army in ancient India?
Infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots.
Why did Ashoka exempt the village of Lumbini from 'Bali' (tribute paid to the king)?
Because this was the birthplace of Gautama Buddha.
Menander, also known as Milinda, was the most famous of the Indo-Greek kings. Where was his capital city?
Sakala, modern Sialkot.
Who was the Buddhist monk who converted Menander into Buddhism?
Nagasena or Nagarjuna.
What is the Milinda Panha?
It is a book, which records the conversation between Nagarjuna and Menander. Milinda Panha literally means Questions by Milinda.
Who issued the first long inscription in chaste Sanskrit?
Rudradaman, the famous Shaka ruler.
We know of two successive dynasties of the Kushanas. Who founded them?
The first dynasty was founded by Kadphises I and the second by Kanishka.
The Shakas and the Kushanas completely identified themselves with Indian culture. What factors helped them in this?
They did not have a script of their own nor did they have any organised religion.
What were the articles of clothing introduced in India by the Shakas and the Kushanas?
Trousers, long coat, tunic and turban. The turban, however, is mentioned as a head dress in ancient India (Ushneesha)
How were the foreign elements like Shaka, Pahlava and the Kushanas assimilated into Indian society?
Since they came as conquerors they were classified as Kshatriyas.
Buddhism was divided into two sects. What were they?
Mahayana: - The Great wheel. Hinayana: - The Lesser wheel.
Name the two Buddhist centres located in present day Andhra Pradesh?
Nagarjunakonda and Amaravati.
What was the contribution of the Greeks to Indian theatre techniques?
The use of curtain was borrowed from the Greeks. The curtain was called "Yavanika".
Over which areas did the Shatavahana dynasty rule?
The Deccan and Central India.
Over which area of India did Rashtrakutas rule?
Who were Gandhikas?
Artisans who are mentioned as giving donations to the Buddhists. Originally Gandhika meant perfumes but was later used to describe shopkeepers. The name Gandhi is said to have been derived from it.
What was the Buddhist temple known as?
What was a Buddhist monastery known as?
What were the main articles of trade of the Southern Kingdoms of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas?
Spices especially pepper, ivory, pearls, muslin and silk.
Name two of the epics of the Sangam Age.
Silappadikaram, Jivakachintamani and Manimekalai.
What was the Uttarapatha?
It was the route that was used for trade. It ran from Taksha-shila to Broach on the Western coast.
Which empire rose on the remains of the Kushan Empire?
The Gupta Empire.
Who were Lichchhavis? What are they known for?
Lichchhavis ruled over a vast area from Magadha to Nepal. They were best known for the democracy they practised. It would not be correct to compare it with democracy as understood today. Some preferred to call it oligarchy.
Who wrote 'Hitopadesha'?
Narayana Bhatta. Hitopadesha is a collection of stories, most of which were drawn from the Panchatantram of Vishnu Sharma.
Who is regarded as the first important King of the Gupta dynasty?
Which Gupta ruler adopted the title 'Vikramaditya'?
Chandragupta II. He is regarded as the greatest of the Gupta rulers (376 to 414 AD).
Who was the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the time of Chandragupta II?
Who was the first Gupta king to assume the title 'Rajadhiraja"?
Chandragupta I. In addition to 'Rajadhiraja', Samudragupta assumed the titles 'Parambhattaraka' and 'Paramabhagavata'.
What was the image on the royal seal of the Guptas?
Who was the author of the play 'Mrichchhakatikam'?
Which empire rose on the ruins of the empire of the Pallavas of Kanchi?
The Chola Empire.
A ruling dynasty at Thanesar, (in modern Haryana), extended its authority over the feudatories of the Gupta Empire. Who was the ruler who achieved this?
Which city did Harsha make his capital?
Who was the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the time of Harsha?
Who was the ruler of South India who prevented Harsha from extending his kingdom southwards?
The Chalukya King Pulakesin II.
What religion did Harsha follow during his early years?
He was a devotee of Shiva.
Which religious sect did Harsha patronise in his later years?
What are the Vedangas?
The limbs of the Vedas. It was necessary to learn the Vedanga to understand the Vedas. The Vedangas were : a) Shiksha (phonetics) b) Kalpa (rituals) c) Vyakarana d) Nirukta (etymology) e) Chhanda (metrics) f) Jyotisha (astronomy)
Who was reputed to be the author of the following books: Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda?
In which book would you find the famous Gayatri mantra?
In the Rigveda, a daughter is sometimes referred to as 'duhitr'. What is the literal translation of the word?
One who milks the cow.
Who was the first person to hold that the earth was a sphere and rotated on its axis?
Aryabhata. He also declared that the eclipses were not the work of Rahu but were caused by the shadow of the earth falling on the moon. Varahamihira and Brahmagupta later astronomers did not agree with his view. Aryabhata also gave an accurate approximation ofn.
What is the 'Dharmachakrapravartana'?
The preaching of the first sermon by Buddha.
Who was responsible for establishing the order of nuns in Buddhism?
Ananda, the personal attendant of Buddha, was largely responsible for the admission of Gautami (the widowed stepmother of Buddha) into the Sangha. This was the beginning of the order of nuns.
Who deciphered the Asokan inscriptions?
The word 'Aryan' originates from the Sanskrit word 'Arya'. What was the meaning of the word?
Of good famil
What was the complaint of Pliny the elder, against India?
He complained that India drained Roman wealth by selling luxury articles at high prices to Romans
What was the name of the son of King of Takshashila who offered Alexander help in invading India?
Ambhi. This was the first recorded instance of an Indian King turning traitor.
What was the name the Greeks used to refer to Ambhi?
By which name do we know the ancient city of Prayag?
Of the five Siddhantas (Indian astronomical works) two are said to be of Western origin. Which?
Romaka Siddhanta and Paulisa Siddhanta. This shows that Indian astronomy was considerably influenced by Western thoughts.
What is the modern name for the ancient city of Purushapura?
From which language is the word 'Sindoora' (vermilion) derived?
Chinese. (From the Chinese word Tsin-sung.)
According to Chinese sources Kaundinya an Indian Prince, formed a kingdom in south East Asia. Where was this kingdom located?
Who was Buddha's personal physician?
Jivaka. Jivaka was the personal physician of Bimbisara. During his visit to Buddha, Bimbisara offered the services of Jivaka, who became Buddha's personal physician.
Who were the Ajivikas?
They were one of the prominent religious sects during the time of Mahavira and Buddha.
In Vedic times, who was referred to as a 'Grihapati'?
The master of the house.
Which common seasoning ingredient of today finds no reference in the Rig Veda?
What was the name of the famous tract of land that lay between the Saraswati and the Drishadvati?
What was the Rajasuya sacrifice (yajna)?
It was the yajna to mark the royal consecration. It included offerings to the gods in the houses of officials and a formal abhisheka by the priest. Other popular rites that followed were a cow-raid and a game of dice in which the king was made the Victor.
What was the Vishwajit sacrifice?
In the Vishwajit sacrifice, the (yajamana) performer had to give away all that he possessed.
Who succeeded Chandra Gupta I?
According to legend, who succeeded Samudragupta?
His son Rama Gupta. He was a weak ruler who surrendered his wife to a Shaka tyrant. Her honour was saved by the younger brother of Rama Gupta, Chandra Gupta, who killed the Shaka ruler, replaced his brother on the throne and married Dhruvadevi.
Who succeeded Chandra Gupta II?
His son Kumara Gupta, who ruled from AD 415 to 455.
Who or what were the Huns?
They were a race of fierce, warlike people, whose original home was in the steppes of Central Asia. They spread terror and destruction both in the West (i.e. the Roman Empire) and India.
Which Gupta ruler successfully defended his empire against the invading Huns?
Which Gupta ruler performed the Ashwamedha yajna?
Into which group of people were the Huns assimilated by the Indian society?
Which dynasty claimed its descent from Lakshmana, the brother of Shri Rama?
The Pratiharas. By the ninth century the influence of Pratiharas extended from the Punjab to central India and from Kathiawar to north Bengal.
Who invented the decimal place value system?
Aryabhata invented the decimal place value system. Scholars hold that it cannot be said with certainty that the system was invented by Aryabhata. It seems it was known to astronomers who came before him.
The Cholas extended their territory in South India and also conquered the northern part of Sri Lanka. Who was the ruler who made northern Sri Lanka a province of his empire?
Which part of India did the Arabs first conquer?
Sindh. Mohammed Ibn-Kasim, the nephew and son-in-law of the governor of Iraq, defeated Dahir Sen in 712 A.D.
What are the four sources of Law according to the law giver, Manu?
a. Sruti or the Vedas. b. Smriti (expanded version of the Dharma shastras). Smriti is also regarded as the only authentic source of Hindu Law and social customs, c. Customs of holy men d. One's own inclination.
By what name was the area of western and northwestern Bengal known?
Gauda. The name was applied both to the people and their country.
Where in Maharashtra are frescoes that depict the Jataka Stories?
At Ajanta, near Ellora caves.
What was the language used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Historians have as yet not been able to determine the language used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization. The script used by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization has also not been deciphered.
Which was the animal that was most engraved on Indus Valley Civilization seals?
The Humpless Bull.
What was unique about the ascension to the throne by Gopala, the founder of the Pala dynasty in Gauda (present day West Bengal)?
He was not a hereditary ruler, but was elected by the people to rule over them.
Which was the seat of power of the Pallava dynasty?
Kanchipuram. The Pallavas founded the first great empire in south India. Under the Pallavas, Kanchi became a great centre of Brahminical and Buddhist learning.
Who was the Chola ruler who crossed the Ganga and defeated the rulers there?
When did the first invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni take place?
Who was the first Indian ruler defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni?
Jayapala of the Hindushahi dynasty.
Where is Ghazni?
In modem Afghanistan.
Why were temples the main target of Mahmud of Ghazni?
They had immense wealth stockpiled.
Who was the Arab traveller whose work on India is referred to as a mirror of 11"1 century India?
At whose request did Alberuni travel to India?
At which battle did Prithviraj Chauhan defeat Mohammed of Ghori?
In the first Battle of Tarain in 1190-91.
Which medieval ruler is reputed to be an author of almost 20 books on subjects as diverse as medicine, architecture and astronomy?
Raja Bhoja of the Paramara dynasty. The Paramara dynasty ruled over the Malwa region.
Identify the person who was in charge of Mohammad of Ghori's possessions in India.
To which deity was the temple of Somnath dedicated?
Who wrote the Ramayana in Tamil?
Who was the founder of the Slave dynasty?
Why is the term "Slave dynasty" an inaccurate term?
Only three sultans (Qutbuddin Aibak, Iltutmish and Balban) were slaves, and later even they were released from slavery by their masters. They were slaves, but only in the early part of their lives.
Who was the only woman to ascend the throne of Delhi?
Which Persian historian accompanied Alauddin Khalji on his expedition to Chittor?
The Choda Ganga dynasty of Orissa was responsible for the construction of some famous temples. Can you identify them?
The Jagannath temple at Puri and the Sun Temple at Konark.
Name the king of Mewar who is said to have built thirty two forts during his reign?
How did Rana Kumbha celebrate his victory over Mahmud Khalji of Malwa?
He built the Tower of Victory in Chittor. It is called the Vijayastambha.
Who helped Humayun save himself after the Battle of Chausa?
A water carrier helped Humayun cross the Ganga and to safety.
Over which kingdom did Chand Bibi rule?
She ruled over Ahmadnagar as a Regent.
What articles of trade was the kingdom of Golconda known for?
Diamonds and textiles.
Who founded the city of Hyderabad?
Mohammad Quli Qutub Shah.
Who was the Qutub Minar dedicated to?
The Sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki and not Qutbuddin Aibak as people mistakenly assume.
In which language did Shankaradeva, a Bhakti Saint, propagate his views?
In which language did Surdas sing?
Where is the famous Kamakhya temple (Kamakshi)?
Which Mughal Emperor adopted the Zoroastrian practice of Navroz?
Which were the provinces added by Aurangzeb to the Mughal Empire?
Bijapur and Golconda.
Who took care of Shah Jahan when he was kept imprisoned by Aurangzeb?
Jahanara, Shah Jahan's daughter.
Who installed a chain of bells outside his palace gate?
Why was the chain of bells installed?
This was the "Chain of Justice" installed to ensure that all citizens of the country had access to justice.
During the reign of which Mughal Emperor was the peacock throne made?
Which place did Vasco da Gama reach when he found a new route to India?
Calicut. Now known as Kozhikode
What were the European Factories that are referred to in Indian history?
Factories were nothing but fortified trading stations established by the European powers in India.
Where did the English set up their first factory?
Who was the Englishman who succeeded in getting a farman from the Mughals exempting the English from paying any inland toll?
Sir Thomas Roe.
What prompted Jahangir to allow the English to set up a factory in Surat?
The British defeated the Portuguese naval squadrons. Jahangir wanted to use the English as a counter against the growing Portuguese power.
What were the reasons why the British wanted to secure Bombay from the Portuguese?
Those controlling Bombay controlled trade on the west coast. And there was no interference from either the Mughals or the Marathas on this sea.
Which city did Job Charnock establish?
Which Saint inspired the Marathas with ideals of social reform and national regeneration?
Saint Samarth Ramdas.
Near which fort, acquired early in his career, did Shivaji build Raigarh?
Between 1649 and 1655 Shivaji suspended offensive operations against Bijapur. Why did he do so?
His father had been arrested and was released only on the condition that Shivaji suspend his military activities.
Alauddin Khalji was the nephew and son-in-law of a Delhi Sultan whom he later murdered. Who was the sultan?
Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji.
One of the more interesting causes for a battle fought in Indian history has been vividly described by Malik Muhammad Jayasi in his epic Padmavat. What, according to Malik Muhammad Jayasi was the cause of the battle?
That Allaudin Khalji invaded Chittor because he was infatuated by Padmini, the queen of Rana Ratan Singh of Mewar.
Why did Muhammad-bin-Tughluq shift his capital from Delhi?
He shifted his capital to Deogir (Deogiri) because it held a central position in the empire and therefore, would be safe from Mongol invasions.
Who was the first Afghan to be seated on the throne of Delhi?
Buhlul Khan Lodi (in April 1451).
Which kingdom came into existence during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq?
Where is Babur buried?
He is buried in Kabul.
Poems of which Kashmiri poet are the oldest of the ones still available with us?
The ruler of Bihar conferred upon the young Farid a title. What was the title and why was it conferred upon him?
Sher Khan, for killing a tiger single-handed.
What was the name assumed by Farid when he ascended the throne?
Who were the opponents in the battle fought at Chausa?
Humayun and Sher Shah.
How did Sher Shah die?
Sher Shah died due to an accidental explosion of gunpowder while attempting to capture the fort Kalinjar in 1545.
Which ruler helped Humayun recover Kandahar and Kabul?
The Ruler of Persia.
Who proclaimed Akbar the Emperor?
Bairam Khan in 1556.
What words did Saint Ramanuja use to describe the scheduled castes?
Tirukulattar (Belonging to the family of God).
At what age did Akbar ascend the thorne?
How did Humayun die?
Humayun tumbled down the stairs of his library when he was responding to the call of muezzin for evening prayers.
What was the occupation of Himu (also spelt Hemu) before he rose to prominence in politics?
He was a grocer.
Who fought the second battle of Panipat?
Akbar and Himu.
Who wrote Lilavati, a treatise on Algebra?
What title did Himu adopt after he occupied Agra and Delhi by defeating its Mughal governor?
Who did Iltutmish nominate as his successor
His daughter Razia.
Himu, in the battle of Panipat, gained initial success against the Mughal forces. How did the tide turn in the favour of the Mughals?
A chance arrow struck Himu in the eye rendering him unconscious. Deprived of his leadership his soldiers dispersed in confusion.
The Mughal forces defeated a Rajput ruler at the pass of Haldighat. Which ruler are we talking about?
Which work describes the romantic story of the marriage of Sanyogita the daughter of the Gahadavala king Jaichandra with Prithviraj Chauhan?
Marco Polo was a traveller (from Venice) who is very well known for his adventures. Which south Indian dynasty does he mention in his travelogues?
The Kakatiya dynasty.
Timur or Tamerlane, a central Asian Turk (and an ancestor of Babur) invaded India and ransacked Delhi. Who was the ruler of Delhi at that time?
Sultan Mahmud Shah.
Name the ruler of the Tughluq dynasty who was well versed in Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine.
Muhammad bin Tughluq.
A particular dance form gained prominence during the Vijayanagara period. What was the dance form?
Who fought the battle of Talikota?
The battle was fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the combined forces of the Deccan Sultans. The Sultan of Berar however did not take part in this battle.
Who won the battle of Talikota?
The Vijayanagara forces were comprehensively defeated and this eventually led to their downfall.
Where was the Battle of Talikota fought?
It was fought in the area between the villages of Rakassi and Tangadi (Tagdi). Due to the bloodshed and ruin that this battle brought on the Vijayanagara Empire it was also called 'Raktakshi Tangadi'.
Who were the opponents at the battle of Khanua?
Rana Sanga and Babur.
What was the name of RanaPratap's horse?
Who was the Jesuit missionary who held personal discussions with Akbar?
How do we better know Mihr-un-nisa in Indian history?
What was the title given to Mihr-un-nisa by Jahangir?
Nur Mahal (the light of the Palace). The title was later changed to Nur Jahan (Light of the World).
Who was the Mughal queen whose name was written on all the imperial Mughal farmans of her time and inscribed on coins?
After Akbar secured victory in Gujarat he undertook an activity to commemorate this victory. What was that activity?
He founded the city of Fatehpur Sikri.
By which name was Ramtanu Mishra known?
Tansen. He was earlier in the employment of the Raja of Rewah.
Name the Mughal emperor who was an accomplished veena player.
The Razmnama in Persian was a compilation by several scholars. Of which Hindu epic was this a translation?
Name Aurangzeb's daughter who wrote under the pen name Makhi and produced a collection of poems.